Readers ask: What Pharmacological Manipulation Was Used In The Morris Water Maze?

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How does Morris water maze work?

The Morris water maze tests impairments in visual short-term memory and visual–spatial abilities in small rodents [69, 70]. In the water maze test, the mice are placed in a large circular pool filled with opaque water and are given the task to swim to a platform that can be either visible or hidden.

What does the Morris water maze test for?

The Morris water maze (MWM) is a test of spatial learning for rodents that relies on distal cues to navigate from start locations around the perimeter of an open swimming arena to locate a submerged escape platform.

What is the Morris water maze and how is it used to study hippocampus function?

The Morris water maze is widely used to study spatial memory and learning. Animals are placed in a pool of water that is colored opaque with powdered non-fat milk or non-toxic tempera paint, where they must swim to a hidden escape platform.

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Which of the following types of learning behaviors do you think the water maze measures?

Water maze tasks primarily designed to measure spatial learning and recall have become quite useful for evaluating the effects of aging, experimental lesions, and drug effects, especially in rodents.

How might you study reference memory in rats trained in the water maze?

Probe trials to test memory Typically, a well- trained rat will swim to the target quadrant of the pool and repeatedly across the former location of the platform until starting to search elsewhere ( Figure 2C). This spatial bias, measured in various ways, constitutes evidence for spatial memory.

What is spatial working memory?

Spatial working memory entails the ability to keep spatial information active in working memory over a short period of time. To study the areas of the brain that are involved in spatial working memory, a group of stroke patients was tested with a spatial search task.

What is passive avoidance test?

The Passive Avoidance task is a fear-aggravated test used to evaluate learning and memory in rodent models of CNS disorders. In this test, subjects learn to avoid an environment in which an aversive stimulus (such as a foot-shock) was previously delivered.

What is spatial learning in psychology?

Spatial learning refers to the process by which an organism acquires a mental representation of its environment. Spatial learning has been found in both vertebrate and invertebrate species.

How do you analyze Y maze?

To test this, one arm of the Y – Maze is blocked off and the animal is allowed to explore the other two arms. The animal’s memory function is tested when the animal is returned to the maze with all arms open and monitored for the tendency to spend time in the new arm or the known arms.

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Does neurogenesis continue throughout life?

Neurogenesis is most active during embryonic development and is responsible for producing all the various types of neurons of the organism, but it continues throughout adult life in a variety of organisms. Once born, neurons do not divide (see mitosis), and many will live the lifespan of the animal.

What does the forced swim test measure?

Forced Swim Test (Porsolt Test ) This physical immobility is thought to be an indication of behavioral despair. Investigators measure the amount of time between when the animal is placed in the chamber and the onset of immobility.

What kind of memory can be studied using mazes like the radial arm maze?

In this way, the radial arm maze measures two forms of memory known as “reference memory ” and “working memory.”

Which test involves the use of a hidden platform?

Water Maze

Test variation How test is performed Method of analysis
Standard: hidden platform (“noncued” version) Animal placed in pool at different entry points and swims until escape onto the submerged platform ANOVA with repeated measures
Probe test (also called “transfer test ”) Remove platform; allow animal free swim ANOVA

What is the Barnes maze test?

The Barnes maze is a dry-land based behavioral test that was originally developed by Carol Barnes to study spatial memory in rats ( Barnes, 1979) and later adapted for use in mice (Bach et al., 1995).

What is reference memory?

Reference memory is a long-term memory. In a spatial task, it mimics two aspects of episodic memory, namely the “what” (content) and “where” (place) dimensions of an event. One of the tasks most frequently used to assess spatial reference memory in the rat is the Morris water maze.

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